THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF PENNSYLVANIA
No. 1032 Session of
INTRODUCED BY GREENLEAF, LOEPER, MELLOW, HART, SALVATORE, O'PAKE, FUMO, BELL, BOSCOLA, BRIGHTBILL, CONTI, CORMAN, KUKOVICH, SCHWARTZ, THOMPSON, WENGER, WOZNIAK, LEMMOND AND MOWERY, JUNE 18, 1999
SENATOR TILGHMAN, APPROPRIATIONS, RE-REPORTED AS AMENDED, SEPTEMBER 26, 2000
1 Amending Title 68 (Real and Personal Property) of the
2 Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, relating to residential
3 real estate transfers; providing for disclosures by sellers
4 of residential real estate and for home inspections; and
5 making a repeal.
6 The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
7 hereby enacts as follows:
8 Section 1. Title 68 of the Pennsylvania Consolidated
9 Statutes is amended by adding a part to read:
10 PART III
11 RESIDENTIAL REAL PROPERTY
13 71. General Provisions
14 73. Seller Disclosures
15 75. Home Inspections
16 CHAPTER 71
17 GENERAL PROVISIONS
4 § 7101. Short title of part.
5 This part shall be known and may be cited as the Residential
6 Real Estate Transfers Law.
7 § 7102. Definitions.
8 Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent
9 provisions of this part which are applicable to specific
10 provisions of this part, the following words and phrases when
11 used in this part shall have the meanings given to them in this
12 section unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
13 "Agent." Any broker, associate broker or salesperson, as
14 defined in the act of February 19, 1980 (P.L.15, No.9), known as
15 the Real Estate Licensing and Registration Act.
16 "Agreement of transfer." A contract between a buyer and
17 seller setting forth the terms of a residential real estate
19 "Buyer." Any person receiving any estate or interest in real
20 property in a transfer subject to this part.
21 "Commission." The State Real Estate Commission.
22 "Final settlement." The time at which the buyer and seller
4 residential real property in a transfer subject to this part.
5 § 7103. Application of part.
6 (a) General rule.--This part shall apply to and the term
7 "residential real estate transfer" when used in this part shall
8 mean a transfer of any interest in real property located within
9 this Commonwealth, other than a transfer described in subsection
10 (b), that consists of not less than one nor more than four
11 residential dwelling units, whether by sale, exchange,
12 installment sales contract, lease with an option to purchase,
13 grant or transfer of unit in a residential condominium or
15 (b) Exceptions.--This part shall not apply to a transfer:
16 (1) Pursuant to court order, including, but not limited
17 to, transfers ordered by a probate court in the
18 administration of an estate, transfers pursuant to a writ of
19 execution, transfers by a trustee in bankruptcy, transfers by
20 eminent domain and condemnation and transfers resulting from
21 a decree for specific performance.
22 (2) To a mortgagee by a mortgagor or successor in
9 (5) Between spouses resulting from a decree of
10 dissolution of marriage or a decree of legal separation or
11 from a property settlement agreement incidental to the
13 (6) By a corporation, partnership or other association
14 to its shareholders, partners or other equity owners in
15 connection with the liquidation of the corporation,
16 partnership or other association.
17 (7) Of a property to be converted by the buyer into a
18 use other than residential use or to be demolished.
19 (8) Of unimproved real property.
20 CHAPTER 73
21 SELLER DISCLOSURES
9 § 7301. Short title of chapter.
10 This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the Real
11 Estate Seller Disclosure Law.
12 § 7302. Application of chapter.
13 (a) General rule.--This chapter shall apply to all
14 residential real estate transfers, except the following:
15 (1) Transfers by a fiduciary in the course of the
16 administration of a decedent's estate, guardianship,
17 conservatorship or trust.
18 (2) Transfers of new residential construction that has
19 not been previously occupied when:
20 (i) the buyer has received a one-year or longer
21 written warranty covering such construction;
22 (ii) the dwelling has been inspected for compliance
9 common elements in a condominium, and section 4409 (relating to
10 resales of cooperative interests) shall control disclosures a
11 seller is required to make concerning common elements in a
13 § 7303. Disclosure of material defects.
14 Any seller who intends to transfer any interest in real
15 property shall disclose to the buyer any material defects with
16 the property known to the seller by completing all applicable
17 items in a property disclosure statement which satisfies the
18 requirements of section 7304 (relating to disclosure form). A
19 signed and dated copy of the property disclosure statement shall
20 be delivered to the buyer in accordance with section 7305
21 (relating to delivery of disclosure form) prior to the signing
22 of an agreement of transfer by the seller and buyer with respect
23 to the property.
When the property was last occupied by the seller.
Basements and crawl spaces.
Termites/wood destroying insects, dry rot and pests.
Additions, remodeling and structural changes to the
16 (8) Water and sewage systems or service.
17 (9) Plumbing system.
18 (10) Heating and air conditioning.
19 (11) Electrical system.
20 (12) Other equipment and appliances included in the
22 (13) Soils, drainage and boundaries.
23 (14) Presence of hazardous substances.
24 (15) Condominiums and other homeowners associations.
9 deemed delivery to all persons intending to take title as co-
10 tenants, joint tenants or as a tenant by the entireties with the
11 buyer. Receipt may be acknowledged on the statement, in an
12 agreement of transfer for the residential real property or shown
13 in any other verifiable manner.
14 § 7306. Information unavailable to seller.
15 If at the time the disclosures are required to be made, an
16 item of information required to be disclosed is unknown or not
17 available to the seller, the seller may make a disclosure based
18 on the best information available to the seller.
19 § 7307. Information subsequently rendered inaccurate.
20 If information disclosed in accordance with this chapter is
21 subsequently rendered inaccurate prior to final settlement as a
22 result of any act, occurrence or agreement subsequent to the
23 delivery of the required disclosures, the seller shall notify
24 the buyer of the inaccuracy.
25 § 7308. Affirmative duty of seller.
9 (2) the error, inaccuracy or omission was based on a
10 reasonable belief that a material defect or other matter not
11 disclosed had been corrected; or
12 (3) the error, inaccuracy or omission was based on
13 information provided by a public agency, home inspector,
14 contractor or person registered or licensed under an act
15 referred to in section 7503(a) (relating to relationship to
16 other laws) about matters within the scope of the agency's
17 jurisdiction or such other person's occupation and the seller
18 had no knowledge of the error, inaccuracy or omission.
19 (b) Delivery of information by public agency.--The delivery
20 of any information required to be disclosed by this chapter to a
21 prospective buyer by a public agency or other person providing
22 information required to be disclosed under this chapter shall be
23 deemed to comply with the requirements of this chapter and shall
24 relieve the seller or the agent of the seller from any further
9 § 7311. Failure to comply.
10 (a) General rule.--A residential real estate transfer
11 subject to this chapter shall not be invalidated solely because
12 of the failure of any person to comply with any provision of
13 this chapter. However, any person who willfully or negligently
14 violates or fails to perform any duty prescribed by any
15 provision of this chapter shall be liable in the amount of
16 actual damages suffered by the buyer as a result of a violation
17 of this chapter. This subsection shall not be construed so as to
18 restrict or expand the authority of a court to impose punitive
19 damages or apply other remedies applicable under any other
20 provision of law.
21 (b) Statute of limitations.--An action for damages as a
22 result of a violation of this chapter must be commenced within
23 two years after the date of final settlement.
24 § 7312. Amendment of disclosure.
8 under the act of February 19, 1980 (P.L.15, No.9), known as the
9 Real Estate Licensing and Registration Act.
10 (c) Duty to provide form.--An agent representing a seller
11 must advise a seller of the seller's responsibilities under this
12 chapter and must provide the seller with a copy of the form of
13 property disclosure statement.
14 § 7314. Cause of action.
15 A buyer shall not have a cause of action under this chapter
16 against the seller or the agent for either or both of the seller
17 or the buyer for:
18 (1) material defects to the property disclosed to the
19 buyer prior to the signing of an agreement of transfer by the
20 seller and buyer;
21 (2) material defects that develop after the signing of
22 the agreement of transfer by the seller and buyer; or
7 except that the municipality or local authority shall not have
8 the power after that date to amend the ordinance or regulation
9 in a manner that:
10 (1) imposes new or expanded disclosure requirements;
11 (2) increases the scope of any provision that must be
12 included in an agreement of transfer; or
13 (3) imposes new requirements on any agent, buyer or
14 seller involved in a residential real estate transfer.
15 CHAPTER 75
16 HOME INSPECTIONS
18 7501. Short title of chapter.
19 7502. Definitions and index of definitions.
20 7503. Relationship to other laws.
21 7504. Duty of care of home inspectors.
22 7505. Consumer remedies.
7 section unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
8 "Home inspection." A noninvasive, visual examination of some
9 combination of the mechanical, electrical or plumbing systems or
10 the structural and essential components of a residential
11 dwelling designed to identify material defects in those systems
12 and components, and performed for a fee in connection with or
13 preparation for a proposed or possible residential real estate
14 transfer. The term also includes any consultation regarding the
15 property that is represented to be a home inspection or that is
16 described by any confusingly similar term. The term does not
17 include an examination of a single system or component of a
18 residential dwelling such as, for example, its electrical or
19 plumbing system or its roof. The term also does not include an
20 examination that is limited to inspection for, or of, one or
21 more of the following: wood destroying insects, underground
22 tanks and wells, septic systems, swimming pools and spas, alarm
7 100 HOME INSPECTIONS AND has passed a recognized or
8 accredited examination testing knowledge of the proper
9 procedures for conducting a home inspection.
10 (4) Requires that its members comply with a code of
11 conduct and attend continuing professional education classes
12 as an ongoing condition of membership.
13 (b) Index of other definitions.--The following is a
14 nonexclusive list of other definitions applying to this chapter
15 and the sections in which they appear:
16 "Agent." Section 7102 (relating to definitions).
17 "Agreement of transfer." Section 7102 (relating to
19 "Buyer." Section 7102 (relating to definitions).
20 "Material defect." Section 7102 (relating to definitions).
21 "Residential real estate transfer." Section 7103 (relating
22 to application of part).
23 "Seller." Section 7102 (relating to definitions).
6 (4) The act of December 14, 1982 (P.L.1227, No.281),
7 known as the Architects Licensure Law.
8 (5) The act of July 9, 1987 (P.L.238, No.43), known as
9 the Radon Certification Act.
10 (6) The act of July 10, 1990 (P.L.404, No.98), known as
11 the Real Estate Appraisers Certification Act.
12 (b) Exclusions.--This chapter shall not:
13 (1) Apply to a person registered or licensed under an
14 act referred to in subsection (a) when acting pursuant to his
15 registration or license.
16 (2) Apply to an officer or employee of a municipality or
17 local authority when acting in his official capacity.
18 (3) Affect the obligations or immunities of a person
19 licensed under the act of February 19, 1980 (P.L.15, No.9),
20 known as the Real Estate Licensing and Registration Act, that
21 are imposed or provided by that act or Chapter 73 (relating
22 to seller disclosures) when the person is acting pursuant to
23 his license.
5 national home inspector associations.
6 § 7505. Consumer remedies.
7 (a) General rule.--The performance of a home inspection is a
8 service that is subject to the act of December 17, 1968
9 (P.L.1224, No.387), known as the Unfair Trade Practices and
10 Consumer Protection Law.
11 (b) Prohibited acts.--Any of the following acts engaged in
12 by a home inspector, an employer of a home inspector or another
13 business or person that controls or has a financial interest in
14 the employer of a home inspector shall be deemed to be an unfair
15 or deceptive act or practice as defined by section 2(4)(i)
16 through (xxi) of the Unfair Trade Practices and Consumer
17 Protection Law:
18 (1) Performing or offering to perform for an additional
19 fee any repairs to a structure with respect to which the home
20 inspector, the employer of the home inspector or such other
21 business or person has prepared a home inspection report
22 within the preceding 12 months, except that this paragraph
23 shall not apply to remediation for radon or wood destroying
4 (3) Offering or delivering any commission, referral fee
5 or kickback to the seller of the inspected property or to an
6 agent for either or both of the seller and the buyer for the
7 referral of any business to the home inspector, the employer
8 of the home inspector or such other business or person.
9 (4) Accepting an engagement to perform a home inspection
10 or to prepare a home inspection report in which the
11 employment itself or the fee payable for the inspection is
12 contingent upon the conclusions in the report, preestablished
13 or prescribed findings or the closing of the transaction.
14 (c) Exception.--A home warranty company that is affiliated
15 with or retains the home inspector does not violate subsection
16 (b) if the home warranty company performs repairs pursuant to
17 claims made under a home warranty contract.
18 (d) Remedies.--In addition to any other remedies available
19 under the Unfair Trade Practices and Consumer Protection Law or
20 other applicable provision of law, the owner of a property on
21 which repairs are performed in violation of subsection (b)(1)
22 shall be entitled to a full refund of any moneys paid for those
23 repairs and any promissory note or other obligation to pay given
24 to the person performing those repairs shall be void.
3 national home inspection association in accordance with the
4 ethical standards and code of conduct or practice of that
5 association. A home inspection performed by a person who has not
6 attained full membership in a national home inspection
7 association satisfies the requirements of this
8 SECTION if the person is supervised by a full member in good <
9 standing of a national home inspection association who agrees to
10 be responsible for the home inspection report by signing the
(b) Reliance.--A buyer shall be entitled to rely in good <
faith, without independent investigation, on a written
representation by a home inspector that the home inspector is a
full member in good standing of a national home inspection
17 § 7507. Contracts with home inspectors.
18 (a) Prohibited provisions.--The following types of
19 provisions in a contract with a home inspector for the
20 performance of a home inspection are contrary to public policy
21 and shall be void:
22 (1) a limitation on the liability of the home inspector
23 for gross negligence or willful misconduct;
24 (2) a waiver or modification of any provision of this
2 writing and shall include:
3 (1) A description of the scope of the inspection,
4 including without limitation an identification of the
5 structural elements, systems and subsystems covered by the
7 (2) A description of any material defects noted during
8 the inspection, along with any recommendation that certain
9 experts be retained to determine the extent of the defects
10 and any corrective action that should be taken. A "material
11 defect" as defined in section 7102 (relating to definitions)
12 that poses an unreasonable risk to people on the property
13 shall be conspicuously identified as such.
14 (3) The following statements, set forth conspicuously:
15 "A home inspection is intended to assist in
16 evaluation of the overall condition of the dwelling. The
17 inspection is based on observation of the visible and
18 apparent condition of the structure and its components on
19 the date of inspection."
20 "The results of this home inspection are not intended
21 to make any representation regarding the presence or
22 absence of latent or concealed defects that are not
23 reasonably ascertainable in a competently performed home
24 inspection. No warranty or guaranty is expressed or
1 professional opinion as to any defects or concerns
2 mentioned in the report."
3 "This home inspection report is not to be construed
4 as an appraisal and may not be used as such for any
6 (b) Confidentiality.--Except as otherwise required by law, a
7 home inspector shall not deliver a home inspection report to any
8 person other than the client of the home inspector without the
9 client's consent. The seller shall have the right, upon request,
10 to receive without charge a copy of a home inspection report
11 from the person for whom it was prepared.
12 (c) Repair estimates prohibited.--A home inspector shall not
13 express either orally or in writing an estimate of the cost to
14 repair any defect found during a home inspection, except that
15 such an estimate may be included in a home inspection report if:
16 (1) the report identifies the source of the estimate;
17 (2) the estimate is stated as a range of costs; and
18 (3) the report states that the parties should consider
19 obtaining an estimate from a contractor who performs the type
20 of repair involved.
21 § 7509. Liability insurance.
22 (a) Required insurance.--A home inspector shall maintain
23 insurance against errors and omissions in the performance of a
24 home inspection and general liability, with coverages of not
1 home inspector delivers.
2 (2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a home inspection
3 report that was delivered prior to
(the Legislative Reference <
Bureau shall insert here the effective date of this act). THE <
5 EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS SECTION.
6 § 7510. RELIANCE BY BUYER.
7 A BUYER SHALL BE ENTITLED TO RELY IN GOOD FAITH, WITHOUT
8 INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION, ON A WRITTEN REPRESENTATION BY A HOME
9 INSPECTOR THAT THE HOME INSPECTOR IS A FULL MEMBER IN GOOD
10 STANDING OF A NATIONAL HOME INSPECTION ASSOCIATION.
§ 7510. § 7511. Penalties. <
12 (a) Criminal penalty.--A person who violates section 7509
13 (relating to liability insurance) or who provides a false
14 representation under section
7506(b) (relating to contractual <
provisions regarding home inspections) 7510 (RELATING TO <
16 RELIANCE BY BUYER) commits a summary offense and upon conviction
17 thereof for a first offense shall be sentenced to pay a fine not
18 exceeding $500 or to imprisonment for not more than three
19 months, or both, and for a second or subsequent offense commits
felony MISDEMEANOR of the third degree and upon conviction <
21 thereof shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not less than $2,000
22 but not more than $5,000 or to imprisonment for not less than
23 one year but not more than two years, or both.
24 (b) Fine.--A person who violates any provision of section
25 7508 (relating to home inspection reports) shall, upon
1 An action to recover damages arising from a home inspection
2 report must be commenced within one year after the date the
3 report is delivered.
4 Section 2. The act of July 2, 1996 (P.L.500, No.84), known
5 as the Real Estate Seller Disclosure Act, is repealed.
6 Section 3. This act shall take effect in one year.